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Dr. Chapa’s Clinical Pearls.

Dr. Chapa’s Clinical Pearls

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Relevant, evidence based, and practical information for medical students, residents, and practicing healthcare providers regarding all things women’s healthcare! This podcast is intended to be clinically relevant, engaging, and FUN, because medical education should NOT be boring! Welcome...to Clinical Pearls.
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At time of post cesarean discharge, most providers prescribe a fixed number of opioid tablets. However, past data has shown that most patients don't use all the opioids they are prescribed. This leads to an excess of opioids in the community, which can ultimately lead to misuse and diversion. In this episode, we will highlight a new publication fro…
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Podcast Family, this episode has 2 parts: 1. First, a "non-medical" little life lesson that I heard recently which I will share with you...I hope it ENCOURAGES you, and 2. The MEDICAL part, which comes from Paul- one of our podcast family members. Paul had a GREAT question regarding the data covered in our immediate PAST episode on TOLAC....listen …
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After a primary CS, the decision to undergo trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) or schedule a repeat cesarean birth is one in which a patient’s values and preferences should be prioritized in a process of shared decision making. Some clinicians elect to utilize a TOLAC calculator as part of the shared decision-making process, while others use a m…
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Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDNB) was first identified over a century ago, and presents as unexpected bleeding, often with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, ecchymosis and, in many cases, intracranial hemorrhage. In newborns, HDNB is typically caused by vitamin K deficiency as neonates are innately deficient in vitamin K secondary to very little…
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Proving that our podcast tagline, “Medicine Moves Fast” is true… this episode highlights something that is, once again, 🔥🔥🔥 Off the Press! on June 4, 2024, the ACOG released a new Practice Update regarding the determination of paternal and fetal RBC genotyping in pregnancies affected by alloimmunization. This builds upon and updates PB #192 from 20…
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June is CMV awareness month. And that’s the keyword there… Awareness! The way we prevent CMV transmission is by awareness. It would be great to have a vaccine against this virus, but we just don’t…yet. Until a safe and effective CMV vaccine is clinically available, primary prevention of cCMV relies on patient education and hygiene measures. In this…
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In 2011, Congress passed a resolution naming June "National CMV Awareness Month," to raise awareness about the most common congenital infection in the US, affecting 1 of 200 live births. It is the leading VIRAL cause of IUFD & miscarriage & the leading cause of neonatal hearing loss, second only to genetic causes. Furthermore, cCMV is more common t…
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(VACAY EDITION) Recently in our high-risk OB clinic, I saw a patient who was disappointed that she “had to stop breastfeeding” as she entered her 3rd trimester with her 2nd child. Her first pregnancy was via vaginal birth, at term, with no complications. This situation is not frequently addressed and is a clinical dilemma. First, when nursing coinc…
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In our podcast archive, we have an episode titled, “TikToc’s #IUD is Killing a Good LARC”. In that episode, I discussed our protocol of using viscous lidocaine applied topically to the cervix, cervical canal, and coating the IUD device for placement. This works! In this episode, we will build on that concept by reviewing a publication released on M…
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It definitely is interesting how published data tends to have sporadic “groupings” in print. For example, last week 2 publications were released which could be placed under one “group”: prediction/prevention of spontaneous preterm birth. One publication (AJOG MFM) presented a systematic review and meta-analysis on universal cervical length screenin…
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It’s exciting to know that we are practicing a type of medicine that is alive and ever-evolving! Such is the case regarding our clinical practice/management of gestational diabetes. In this episode, we will review brand new (as of May 21, 2024) clinical guidance from the ACOG regarding gestational diabetes. Should we be screening for diabetes befor…
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The United States began adding fluoride to community water supplies in 1945. At that time, Grand Rapids, Michigan became the first community in the world to add fluoride to tapwater. Over the last several years, with an increase in reporting and media stories over the last 3 months, fluorinated drinking water has come under scrutiny and controversy…
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Podcast family, this episode is recorded on the last day of the ACOG ACSM. Wanted to share with you some encouragement that I received from our podcast family members over these last 2 to 3 days. AND of course, in typical style, I’ll share with you a brand new publication which was released on May 17, 2024 in the AJOG (GRAY Journal) regarding “opti…
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We all can agree that we need a new ally against the foe of pre-term birth. With the disappointing results regarding the (lack of) efficacy of progesterone in reducing preterm birth, the search is out for a new, effective tool to reduce pre-term birth rates. Enter: the Lioness(tm) device. In this episode, we will review a new “safety and efficacy” …
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Unbelievable timing! In our immediate past episode, we discussed the controversy surrounding pharmacoprophylaxis for antepartum inpatients. Just 3 days from that episode, a new RCT has been published in the Green Journal (Obstet Gynecol) discussing this very subject! This new RCT (published May 14, 2024) investigates the “best dose” of unfractionat…
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All of us can agree that the rates of obesity are progressively climbing, not just in the US, but globally. Obesity is a known independent risk factor in pregnancy for VTE. Several professional societies (ACOG, CMQCC, RCOG, SMFM) have clear recommendations for VTE pharmacoprophylaxis in patients considered at high risk. These include having a high …
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is known as a normal vaginal microbiota resulting in low lactobacilli; it affects one-quarter to one-third of reproductive-age women. The BV treatment landscape has not appreciably changed in decades: in the US, metronidazole and clindamycin are recommended as first-line treatments for symptomatic BV, and secnidazole and ti…
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Preterm birth is the leading cause of death in newborns and children. Tocolytic drugs aim to delay preterm birth by suppressing uterine contractions to allow time for administration of corticosteroids for fetal lung maturation, magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection, and transport to a facility with appropriate neonatal care facilities. However, th…
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Haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and sepsis are responsible for more than half of maternal deaths worldwide. Further, it is estimated that for every death, there are 50 pregnant people with life-threatening morbidity from sepsis. Heartbreakingly, the incidence of puerperal sepsis has risen over the last decade, in some cases doubling, with incr…
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Menopausal HRT is getting a big, big facelift! Get ready for new research trials, physician education programs, and patient awareness campaigns on menopause! Since the WHI study was released in 2002, the world of menopausal HRT has gone through some major changes. WHI initially led to confusion and fear regarding the use of menopausal HRT. But now,…
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Just the other day in my University clinic, in one single morning, I had 3 separate patients with three very interesting histories; these became the basis of this episode. It’s amazing what’s out there in daily practice! So, we will dive into these 3 main questions which arose from these 3 patient encounters: 1. What single test is recommended befo…
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Well, once again… Late breaking news! Today, April 30, 2024, the USPSTF released its updated recommendations for breast cancer screening (mammography) in average risk patients. This follows a firestorm of controversy and backlash over the last 1 to 2 years as the USPSTF continued to recommend initiation of mammogram at age 50, despite the increased…
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Traditionally, clinical guidance has incorporated maternal fever as a required criterion for suspected intraamniotic infection. That is exactly what is stated in the ACOG committee opinion #712 from 2017. However, not all patients with clinical IAI have fever! Having fever as a required part of the diagnostic criterion may result in delayed adminis…
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Regenerative Medicine is definitively a HOT and marketable offering across a variety of medical disciplines. But it is equally as controversial. The most well known type of regenerative medicine is the use of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). This has been proposed as a novel care therapy for musculoskeletal pain disorders, and a variety of GYNECOLOGICAL…
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WOW. There has been a lot of new developments in the ObGyn world within the last 48 hours. In this episode, we will highlight 3 big developments/alerts regarding women’s healthcare: 1. the FDA’s approval of a new oral antibiotic for UTIs in females; 2. The updated ACOG practice advisory regarding maternal cell-free fetal RHD testing; and 3. The FDA…
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(With Resident Co-Host Dr Taylor Apley) Menstrual synchrony is often reported by all-female livinggroups and by mothers, daughters and sisters who are living together. Is this real? Is this a pheromone issue? Is there biological signaling occurring here? The answer may surprise you! How does this work? Or does it work at all? And…what is the “MALE …
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Our regular podcast family members know that we have been following the antenatal corticosteroid story (especially in the late pre-term/early term interval) for several years now. A variety of countries have now pulled back from recommending corticosteroids in the late pre-term/early term interval due to concerns of adverse child neurodevelopment, …
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Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the United States (with skin cancer are the most common). About 9% of all new cases of breast cancer in the United States are found in women younger than 45 years of age. Unfortunately, breast cancer is being diagnosed in women under 40 at an increased rate. This was recently published i…
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Historically, colostrum was expressed by women mid- to late-pregnancy with the intent to avoid engorgement and breast trauma in the postnatal period, but it was not stored for use after birth. But storing colostrum antepartum for newborn feeding has gained attention in social media channels. Is antenatal milk expression, also called colostrum harve…
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From 2012 to 2021, congenital syphilis cases in the United States increased by 755%. According to the CDC, 88% of congenital syphilis cases in 2022 could have been prevented with timely screening and treatment. Despite repetitive messaging about the need to identify syphilis early in pregnancy, with appropriate treatment, gaps remain. A new publica…
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There is a STRONG debate within the medical community as to whether testosterone should be prescribed to women during menopause and the time before and after it. Social media influencers and other media personalities are touting testosterone as a cure-all for mood, sex drive, cognitive changes, fatigue, reduced muscle strength, and other symptoms a…
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While the importance of optimizing a woman's hemoglobin level during the peripartum period has been emphasized in recent guidelines by the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology, the ACOG, and the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Society, postpartum anemia remains a real issue in both the developed and developing world. Postpartum anemia …
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Amnioinfusion was first described in 1976 using a rhesus monkey model. In that landmark study, the authors reported that variable decelerations occurred when amniotic fluid was removed from the uterine cavity and resolved when it was replaced. Although this experiment established that variable decelerations related to oligohydramnios and cord compr…
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In 2014, a publication out of JAMA Pediatrics raised questions regarding the safety of acetaminophen in pregnancy describing a possible “association” with later neurodevelopmental and cognitive delays in children. What followed was a string of controversial publications (observational) with mounds of conflicting data. This led to a controversial in…
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It has been stated that “Trauma is in the eye of the beholder”. Healthcare providers must be aware that a woman makes experience a birth as traumatic, even if she and her infant are healthy. The ACOG has highlighted perinatal PTSD in several publications, which we will review in this episode. Perinatal PTSD has definitely been in the OB/GYN and psy…
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In July 2023 and again in November 2023, we discussed the “Rule of 55“ and its role in the management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The Rule of 55 has been mainly applied in the selection of appropriate antipretensive medications when urgent/emergent hypertension is present. Does the Rule of 55 also work for antihypertensive management of…
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On April 8, 2024, parts of the United States will be within the Path of Totality for the total solar eclipse. The state of Texas has already declared a state of emergency as visitors flock to the state to witness the event. This is a fascinating celestial occurrence that is not scheduled to happen again until August 2044. Does the eclipse have a ne…
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Today, April 3, 2024, the ACOG released a clinical practice update to practice bulletin# 222 (gestational hypertension eclampsia). This is in direct response to a recent FDA approved biomarker test for risk stratification for preeclampsia. On May 19, 2023, the FDA cleared a novel biomarker serum test for the risk stratification for severe preeclamp…
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According to the CDC, as well as worldwide data, the percentage of individuals categorized as overweight or obese is rising. First released in 1990 by the IOM, the guidelines for expected weight gain in pregnancy-based on pre-pregnancy weight (BMI)- have been controversial. These guidelines were revised in 2009. Now, a new publication from the Lanc…
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The current dose and schedule for antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) follows the original publication by Liggins and Howie in 1972. That dose and schedule was based on sheep models from the 1960s. The dose in current use had never been evaluated to minimize exposures while assuring efficacy. New pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data is calling into…
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Meningiomas are common intracranial tumors with a female predominance. The vast majority of these tumors are benign (World Health Organization [WHO] grade 1) while 15% to 20% of these tumors can behave atypically (WHO grade 2) and rarely, in 1% to 2% of cases, these tumors can be malignant (WHO grade 3) Their etiology is still poorly documented. Th…
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According to the ACOG, pre-labor rupture of membranes (PROM) complicates 10% of all births in the United States and is a major contributor to perinatal morbidity and mortality. What is the best course of action when patients present with PROM with a “unfavorable cervix”? Should it be a pharmacological method of ripening, or a mechanical? What does …
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Obstetrical vacuum and forceps are incredible tools, when used correctly, to assist vaginal delivery. Appropriately selected and used, they can be pivotal in reducing the number of unnecessary cesareans and potentially decreasing certain fetal and maternal complications. However, there are several pearls of wisdom to remember when using them. In th…
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Ovarian preservation by autologous transplantation has given hope to patients desiring future fertility after certain gonadotoxic therapies for malignant conditions. But now, the same procedure is being promoted as a “natural cure” for menopause. Can ovarian tissue-based therapies really be the female, endocrine “fountain of youth”? In this episode…
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Since the late 1990s, the standard practice for GDM care has been to measure postprandial glucose values. For patients with pre-gestational diabetes, whether type I or type II, the ACOG recommends multi-level glucose checks (fasting, pre-meal , postprandial, and nighttime). But what about in the immediate postpartum interval? In patient’s with pre-…
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Is breastfeeding with Hepatitis C safe? The answer: Yes! But confusion persists today mainly surrounding the serum hepatitis C viral load. That’s the topic and focus of the new publication released March 2024 in the Green journal, Obstetrics and Gynecology. We will highlight this new study in this episode. Yep, we have learned a lot about hepatitis…
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It has been estimated that up to 4.4% of the US adult population has been diagnosed with ADHD. Use of ADHD medication is increasing among pregnant women. In the last several years, there’s been a litany of publications looking at the effects of pregnancy on ADHD, as well as the effects of medication on the pregnancy. In this episode, we will highli…
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Four years, the US National Vital Statistics System has reported an abnormally high maternal mortality rate in the United States, showing it to be nearly doubled from 17.4 in 2018 to 32.9 per 100,000 live births in 2021. The United States’s maternal mortality rate has been on the media radar for many years because of this. But that rate is complete…
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The ACOG, CDC, and WHO currently do not recommend universal screening for thrombophilia in the general population before starting oral contraceptive pills. However, a new publication in AJOG (March 2024) is challenging that stance. In this episode, we will review this new prospective population-based study to see if it makes the case for universal …
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Gestational Diabetes (GDM) is vastly more prevalent in pregnancy compared to pre-existing diabetes. In 2009, the ACOG states that 7% of all pregnancies were complicated by a diabetes diagnosis, with 86% being GDM. The prevalence of GDM keeps rising in the US and globally. Metformin is increasingly prescribed in pregnancy, yet its long-term effect o…
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